In its pure form, the element is too reactive to occur naturally and is often found in compound state or in minerals. 4. Germanium is quite rare and found in the Earth at about 1.6 parts per million. The highest concentration has been found in coal seams.
Is germanium a pure substance?
Pure germanium is a hard, lustrous, gray-white, brittle metalloid. It has a diamondlike crystalline structure and it is similar in chemical and physical properties to silicon. Germanium is stable in air and water, and is unaffected by alkalis and acids, except nitric acid. Therefore it’s a pure substance..
What form is germanium found in?
Germanium is found in germanite, argyrodite, and some zinc ores. It is also present in coal and its presence in coal insures reserves for many years.
What element is found in its pure form?
A number of elements exist in a pure form in nature such as oxygen and nitrogen (in air), gold, silver, carbon (graphite and diamonds), and sulfur. A few very familar elements include: iron in steel, copper in pipes in your house or the copper coating on pennies, and aluminum popcans.
How is germanium naturally found?
Germanium is primarily mined with zinc ore as well as with argyrodite, germanite, and coal according to the Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Is germanium toxic to humans?
Germanium is not an essential element. Its acute toxicity is low. However, at least 31 reported human cases linked prolonged intake of germanium products with renal failure and even death.
Where is germanium used in everyday life?
The largest use of germanium is in the semiconductor industry. When doped with small amounts of arsenic, gallium, indium, antimony or phosphorus, germanium is used to make transistors for use in electronic devices. Germanium is also used to create alloys and as a phosphor in fluorescent lamps.
What is germanium an example of?
The Germanium element is not doped with any impurities. Hence, it is an intrinsic semiconductor.So, Germanium is an example of an intrinsic semiconductor.
Is germanium safe to wear?
Inorganic (elemental) germanium is LIKELY UNSAFE. This includes certain compounds such as germanium oxide. There have been more than 30 reports of kidney failure and death linked with use of these forms of germanium. It builds up in the body and can damage vital organs such as the kidneys.
Is germanium magnetic?
Abstract. The magnetic susceptibility of highly doped germanium has been measured between 300°K and 1.3°K. The contribution of the carriers to the susceptibility has been derived from the data.
What household items are pure elements?
Here are some examples of pure elements that might be found in a home: Argon and tungsten are in incandescent light bulbs. Mercury is in some thermostats and in switches in space heaters that turn off when tipped over. Copper is used in electrical wiring and in some water pipes. Carbon is in pencils.
Which elements are naturally occurring?
The elements found in nature are elements with atomic numbers 1 (hydrogen) through 98 (californium). Ten of these elements occur in trace amounts: technetium (No. 43), promethium (61), astatine (85), francium (87), neptunium (93), plutonium (94), americium (95), curium (96), berkelium (97), and californium (98).
Can be broken down into two or more components?
throughout the matter). A material composed of two or more substances is a mixture. A substance that can be broken down into chemically simpler components (because it has more than one element) is a compound. For example, water is a compound composed of the elements hydrogen and oxygen.
What food is germanium in?
Germanium is a naturally occurring element. Trace amounts can be found in foods such as shiitake mushrooms, garlic, tuna, and tomato juice. However, it is not an essential nutrient for human health.
Is germanium found in the human body?
Germanium is a chemical element that can be found in trace amounts in some ores and carbon-based materials. Some people promote it as a treatment for HIV and AIDS, cancer, and other conditions. But the purported health benefits of germanium haven’t been supported by research.
Does germanium have health benefits?
Despite serious safety concerns, germanium is used for heart and blood vessel conditions, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and heart disease; for eye conditions, including glaucoma and cataracts; and for liver conditions, including hepatitis and cirrhosis.
Is germanium radioactive?
Germanium 76 is slightly radioactive and is the least common. Germanium 74 is the most common isotope having the greatest natural abundance of the five. Under the condition of being bombarded with alpha particles, Germanium 72 generates stable Se 77.
Is germanium a rare earth metal?
Rare earth elements are also expected to play a big part in the future. Cerium, the most common, is similar in abundance to copper and more abundant than lead, tin, cadmium, boron, tantalum, germanium and numerous other commonly used elements. Even so, rare earth elements are in short supply.
What household items contain germanium?
Where can you find germanium? Germanium is used in the manufacture of wide-angle camera lenses. The element gives special properties to the glass. Because germanium has traits that are similar to silicon and tin, the semiconductor industry uses germanium on a regular basis.
What is the importance of germanium?
Germanium is an important semiconductor, mainly used in transistors and integrated circuits. They are often made from germanium to which small amounts of arsenic, gallium, or other metals. Germanium forms many compounds.
Where was germanium found?
History. Germanium was discovered by Clemens A. Winkler at Freiberg, Germany, in 1886. Its existence had been predicted by Mendeleev who predicted its atomic weight would be about 71 and that its density around 5.5 g/cm3.
Is germanium used in everyday life?
In addition to its applications in electronic devices, germanium is used as a component of alloys and in phosphors for fluorescent lamps. Because germanium is transparent to infrared radiation, it is employed in equipment used for detecting and measuring such radiation, such as windows and lenses.
Does germanium react with water?
Reaction of germanium with water It is more reactive than silicon, which is immediately above germanium in the periodic table, but not by much. This oxide layer renders germanium more or less inert to water.