Coagulation is the chemical water treatment process used to remove solids from water, by manipulating electrostatic charges of particles suspended in water. This process introduces small, highly charged molecules into water to destabilize the charges on particles, colloids, or oily materials in suspension.
What is coagulation in water treatment?
Coagulation is a process used to neutralise charges and form a gelatinous mass to trap (or bridge) particles thus forming a mass large enough to settle or be trapped in the filter.
What happens in stage 2 of water treatment?
Once the wastewater has passed through primary treatment, most of the rubbish and solid waste material has been screened out. The wastewater is now directed to secondary treatment. Secondary treatment removes nutrients and remaining solids through bacterial decomposition.
What is coagulation process in chemistry?
Coagulation is a chemical process used to neutralize charges and form a gelatinous mass to trap (or bridge) particles, thus forming a mass large enough to settle or be trapped in a filter.
What is coagulant explain with example?
Coagulants are a substance which cause particles in a liquid to curdle and clot together. Coagulation treatment chemicals are used in effluent water treatment processes for solids removal, water clarification, lime softening, sludge thickening, and solids dewatering.
Why alum is used as coagulant?
When alum is added to water, it reacts with the water and results in positively charged ions. Coagulation removes colloids and suspended solids from the water. These particles have a negative charge, so the positively charged coagulant chemicals neutralize them during coagulation.
What are the 4 steps of water treatment?
These include: (1) Collection ; (2) Screening and Straining ; (3) Chemical Addition ; (4) Coagulation and Flocculation ; (5) Sedimentation and Clarification ; (6) Filtration ; (7) Disinfection ; (8) Storage ; (9) and finally Distribution. Let’s examine these steps in more detail.
What are the three steps of waste water treatment?
Wastewater is treated in 3 phases: primary (solid removal), secondary (bacterial decomposition), and tertiary (extra filtration).
How does water get treated?
Coagulation and flocculation are often the first steps in water treatment. After the water has been filtered, a disinfectant (for example, chlorine, chloramine) may be added in order to kill any remaining parasites, bacteria, and viruses, and to protect the water from germs when it is piped to homes and businesses.
What are the three stages in the treatment of water give the objectives of each stage?
The three stages of wastewater treatment are known as primary, secondary and tertiary. Each stage purifies water to a higher level. In some applications, only one or two stages are necessary. The level of treatment necessary depends on the water’s intended use case, and what environment it will be discharged into.
What is the aim of coagulation?
The purpose of coagulation is not only to cause particle settling but also to give particles the appropriate surface property which facilitate particles to be retained by the filter medium in subsequent filtration unit.
What are the types of coagulation?
Types of coagulation tests Complete blood count (CBC) Your doctor may order a complete blood count (CBC) as part of your routine physical. Factor V assay. This test measures Factor V, a substance involved in clotting. Fibrinogen level. Prothrombin time (PT or PT-INR) Platelet count. Thrombin time. Bleeding time.
What is egg coagulation?
Coagulation indicates a change from a fluid to a solid or semisolid (gel) state. The success of many cooked foods depends on the coagulative properties of proteins, particularly the irreversible coagulative properties of egg proteins. Egg proteins denature and coagulate over a wide temperature range.
How does a coagulant work?
Coagulants work by creating a chemical reaction, eliminating negative charges that cause particles to repel each other. The action of these bubbles forces clots or flocs of particles to the water surface where they can be skimmed off. Dissolved air flotation is an alternative to sedimentation.
What is coagulant mean?
A coagulant is a compound or agent which is added to a vessel to help thicken something. Adding a coagulant such as aluminum sulfate to water permits particles to come together and results in the formation of a flocculent mass. A coagulant is a compound or agent which is added to a vessel to help thicken something.
What is most common used coagulant?
Aluminum sulfate (alum) is the most common coagulant used for water purification. Other chemicals, such as ferric sulfate or sodium aluminate, may also be used.
What are the side effects of alum?
If experienced, these tend to have a Severe expression i fluid accumulation around the eye. throat swelling. a feeling of throat tightness. a skin ulcer. hives. a shallow ulcer on the skin. fainting. puffy face from water retention.
Is alum positive or negative?
For example, the colloidal particles are negatively charged and alum is added as a coagulant to create positively charged ions. Once the repulsive charges have been neutralized (since opposite charges attract), van der Waals force will cause the particles to cling together (agglomerate) and form micro floc.
Is alum a coagulant?
Alum is one of the most widely used coagulants in the water treatment industry (Benschoten and Edzwald 1990). For water and wastewater treatment, the coagulants used more frequently are the inorganic salts of aluminum.
What is the most important step in water treatment?
It is, however, an important primary step in the water treatment process, because coagulation removes many of the particles, such as dissolved organic carbon, that make water difficult to disinfect. Because coagulation removes some of the dissolved substances, less chlorine must be added to disinfect the water.
What materials Cannot be removed from wastewater?
When wastewater arrives at the treatment plant, it contains many solids that cannot be removed by the wastewater treatment process. This can include rags, paper, wood, food particles, egg shells, plastic, and even toys and money.
How do you make water drinkable?
If you don’t have safe bottled water, you should boil your water to make it safe to drink. Boiling is the surest method to kill disease-causing organisms, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites.
What are the 5 stages of wastewater treatment?
Treatment Steps Step 1: Screening and Pumping. Step 2: Grit Removal. Step 3: Primary Settling. Step 4: Aeration / Activated Sludge. Step 5: Secondary Settling. Step 6: Filtration. Step 7: Disinfection. Step 8: Oxygen Uptake.
What is primary water treatment?
The purpose of primary treatment is to settle material by gravity, removing floatable objects,and reducing the pollution to ease secondary treatment. Primary Treatment aims to reduce the Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) in the wastewater.
How many types of STP plants are there?
Many STPs are known as three-stage because they process their wastewater in three principal steps: primary, secondary and tertiary treatment.